Deliberate Acts of Teaching

Key Principles:

It is a “given” that effective teachers:

actively teach skills, content & key competencies;
co-construct learning intentions with learners;
know what they are teaching & why;
understand the learning progressions;
plan relevant, interesting learning activities;
provide opportunities for learners to reinforce & practise new learning;
provide effective feedback & feed-forward;
are flexible & responsive;
are flexible, organised & collaborative;
use language the learner understands.
Prompting (encouraging):

Effective teachers:

ask another question;
remind;
rephrase the question;
give hints & clues;
provide thinking time / wait time;
encourage learners to use what they already know;
scaffold the next learning steps;
actively listen;
understand learning styles.
Feedback (how, why & next step):

Effective teachers:

provide specific feedback & feed-forward;
acknowledge the skills & process learned;
make links to the learning intention;
understand learning progressions;
give immediate feedback;
provide opportunity for learners to follow up & action the feedback / feed-forward.
Directing (giving a specific instruction):

Effective teachers:

clearly state the learning intention & displays clarity of purpose;
makes connections between prior & new learning;
directs learners to discuss, compare, understand & learn from others’ ideas;
directs learners to other resources.
Modelling (showing how):

Effective teachers:

use a variety of: approaches, appropriate language, question types, strategies / formats / technologies / structures, recording formats, relevant contexts, grouping structures, …;
make displays of learners’ work to include strategies, recording, language & thinking used;
display exemplars of learning;
paraphrase, clarify, discuss & model what learners say;
model themselves as a learner;
model & articulate desired learning attributes including thinking skills, repeated attempts, enjoyment, risk taking, generalising, connections to previous learning, listening, challenge.
Questioning (asking the right question):

Effective teachers:

ask a variety of questions;
allow for prediction, explanation & reflection;
challenge thinking & learning;
provide wait time;
question the learner to reveal & extend thinking processes & strategies;
encourage learners to ask questions;
create discussion opportunities;
expect response & commitment from the respondent.
Telling:

Effective teachers:

supply, give or tell what the learner needs;
fills a gap so learning can progress;
gives information;
reminds the learner of prior knowledge;
provides language needed.
Explaining (give a reason why):

Effective teachers:

use “because” to justify their reasoning;
use a variety of ways to explain a learning opportunity;
use explicit, relevant explanations;
use language learners understand;
are alert to the teachable moment.
Based on research from: “The Effective Literacy Handbook Years 5 – 8″

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